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Nicotine Tob Res. 2007 Dec;9(12):1297-307.

Association of post-treatment smoking change with future smoking and cessation efforts among adolescents with psychiatric comorbidity.

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Brown University Center for Alcohol and Addictions Studies, Providence, RI, USA.


Little is known about how initial change following a smoking intervention relates to longer-term smoking outcomes among adolescent smokers with psychiatric comorbidity. The present study investigated this relationship among psychiatrically hospitalized adolescents (N = 183) who participated in a controlled trial comparing motivational interviewing to brief advice. Quit attempters (n = 37), reducers (n = 45), and maintainers (n = 101) were assembled based on, respectively, having made a quit attempt, having reduced smoking by at least 50%, and having reduced smoking by less than 50% in the first week after hospital discharge. Hierarchical linear models and generalized estimating equations were conducted to test group differences in average number of cigarettes per smoking day and odds of making a quit attempt during subsequent weeks of a 12-month continuous follow-up, and in cotinine-verified abstinence rates at 1, 6, and 12 months posthospitalization. Baseline smoking levels and presence of a substance use disorder or anxiety disorder were predictive of outcomes. After controlling for covariates, we found that quit attempters smoked less during follow-up than did the other change groups and that reducers smoked less than maintainers. Quit attempters evidenced a higher percentage of quit attempts during follow-up than did the other change groups. Reducers had a greater average percentage of quit attempts during follow-up than did maintainers. However, groups did not differ on cotinine-verified abstinence rates across the follow-up period. Findings have implications for initial post-treatment change as it relates to subsequent smoking and cessation outcomes among adolescent smokers at especially high risk for smoking persistence.

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