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J Am Chem Soc. 2007 Dec 26;129(51):16197-208. Epub 2007 Dec 4.

Isomeric forms of heavier main group hydrides: experimental and theoretical studies of the [Sn(Ar)H]2 (Ar = terphenyl) system.

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Department of Chemistry, University of California, Davis, One Shields Avenue, Davis, California, 95616, USA.


A series of symmetric divalent Sn(II) hydrides of the general form [(4-X-Ar')Sn(mu-H)]2 (4-X-Ar' = C6H2-4-X-2,6-(C6H3-2,6-iPr2)2; X = H, MeO, tBu, and SiMe3; 2, 6, 10, and 14), along with the more hindered asymmetric tin hydride (3,5-iPr2-Ar*)SnSn(H)2(3,5-iPr2-Ar*) (16) (3,5-iPr2-Ar* = 3,5-iPr2-C6H-2,6-(C6H2-2,4,6-iPr3)2), have been isolated and characterized. They were prepared either by direct reduction of the corresponding aryltin(II) chloride precursors, ArSnCl, with LiBH4 or iBu2AlH (DIBAL), or via a transmetallation reaction between an aryltin(II) amide, ArSnNMe2, and BH3.THF. Compounds 2, 6, 10, and 14 were obtained as orange solids and have centrosymmetric dimeric structures in the solid state with long Sn...Sn separations of 3.05 to 3.13 A. The more hindered tin(II) hydride 16 crystallized as a deep-blue solid with an unusual, formally mixed-valent structure wherein a long Sn-Sn bond is present [Sn-Sn = 2.9157(10) A] and two hydrogen atoms are bound to one of the tin atoms. The Sn-H hydrogen atoms in 16 could not be located by X-ray crystallography, but complementary Mössbauer studies established the presence of divalent and tetravalent tin centers in 16. Spectroscopic studies (IR, UV-vis, and NMR) show that, in solution, compounds 2, 6, 10, and 14 are predominantly dimeric with Sn-H-Sn bridges. In contrast, the more hindered hydrides 16 and previously reported (Ar*SnH)2 (17) (Ar* = C6H3-2,6-(C6H2-2,4,6-iPr3)2) adopt primarily the unsymmetric structure ArSnSn(H)2Ar in solution. Detailed theoretical calculations have been performed which include calculated UV-vis and IR spectra of various possible isomers of the reported hydrides and relevant model species. These showed that increased steric hindrance favors the asymmetric form ArSnSn(H)2Ar relative to the centrosymmetric isomer [ArSn(mu-H)]2 as a result of the widening of the interligand angles at tin, which lowers steric repulsion between the terphenyl ligands.


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