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Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2007 Dec 4;104(49):19363-8. Epub 2007 Nov 28.

Using plastid genome-scale data to resolve enigmatic relationships among basal angiosperms.

Author information

1
Department of Botany and Florida Museum of Natural History, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611, USA. michael.moore@oberlin.edu

Abstract

Although great progress has been made in clarifying deep-level angiosperm relationships, several early nodes in the angiosperm branch of the Tree of Life have proved difficult to resolve. Perhaps the last great question remaining in basal angiosperm phylogeny involves the branching order among the five major clades of mesangiosperms (Ceratophyllum, Chloranthaceae, eudicots, magnoliids, and monocots). Previous analyses have found no consistent support for relationships among these clades. In an effort to resolve these relationships, we performed phylogenetic analyses of 61 plastid genes ( approximately 42,000 bp) for 45 taxa, including members of all major basal angiosperm lineages. We also report the complete plastid genome sequence of Ceratophyllum demersum. Parsimony analyses of combined and partitioned data sets varied in the placement of several taxa, particularly Ceratophyllum, whereas maximum-likelihood (ML) trees were more topologically stable. Total evidence ML analyses recovered a clade of Chloranthaceae + magnoliids as sister to a well supported clade of monocots + (Ceratophyllum + eudicots). ML bootstrap and Bayesian support values for these relationships were generally high, although approximately unbiased topology tests could not reject several alternative topologies. The extremely short branches separating these five lineages imply a rapid diversification estimated to have occurred between 143.8 +/- 4.8 and 140.3 +/- 4.8 Mya.

PMID:
18048334
PMCID:
PMC2148295
DOI:
10.1073/pnas.0708072104
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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