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Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci. 2008 May 12;363(1497):1675-86.

Review. Meiotic drive and sex determination: molecular and cytological mechanisms of sex ratio adjustment in birds.

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1
Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85721, USA.

Abstract

Differences in relative fitness of male and female offspring across ecological and social environments should favour the evolution of sex-determining mechanisms that enable adjustment of brood sex ratio to the context of breeding. Despite the expectation that genetic sex determination should not produce consistent bias in primary sex ratios, extensive and adaptive modifications of offspring sex ratio in relation to social and physiological conditions during reproduction are often documented. Such discordance emphasizes the need for empirical investigation of the proximate mechanisms for modifying primary sex ratios, and suggests epigenetic effects on sex-determining mechanisms as the most likely candidates. Birds, in particular, are thought to have an unusually direct opportunity to modify offspring sex ratio because avian females are heterogametic and because the sex-determining division in avian meiosis occurs prior to ovulation and fertilization. However, despite evidence of strong epigenetic effects on sex determination in pre-ovulatory avian oocytes, the mechanisms behind such effects remain elusive. Our review of molecular and cytological mechanisms of avian meiosis uncovers a multitude of potential targets for selection on biased segregation of sex chromosomes, which may reflect the diversity of mechanisms and levels on which such selection operates in birds. Our findings indicate that pronounced differences between sex chromosomes in size, shape, size of protein bodies, alignment at the meiotic plate, microtubule attachment and epigenetic markings should commonly produce biased segregation of sex chromosomes as the default state, with secondary evolution of compensatory mechanisms necessary to maintain unbiased meiosis. We suggest that it is the epigenetic effects that modify such compensatory mechanisms that enable context-dependent and precise adjustment of primary sex ratio in birds. Furthermore, we highlight the features of avian meiosis that can be influenced by maternal hormones in response to environmental stimuli and may account for the precise and adaptive patterns of offspring sex ratio adjustment observed in some species.

PMID:
18048292
PMCID:
PMC2606724
DOI:
10.1098/rstb.2007.0006
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article
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