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Photochem Photobiol Sci. 2007 Dec;6(12):1234-45. Epub 2007 Aug 29.

Milestones in the development of photodynamic therapy and fluorescence diagnosis.

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Department of Radiation Biology, Institute for Cancer Research, Rikshospitalet-Radiumhospitalet Medical Center, The Norwegian Radium Hospital, Montebello, N-0310, Oslo, Norway.


Many reviews on PDT have been published. This field is now so large, and embraces so many sub-specialties, from laser technology and optical penetration through diffusing media to a number of medical fields including dermatology, gastroenterology, ophthalmology, blood sterilization and treatment of microbial-viral diseases, that it is impossible to cover all aspects in a single review. Here, we will concentrate on a few basic aspects, all important for the route of development leading PDT to its present state: early work on hematoporphyrin and hematoporphyrin derivative, second and third generation photosensitizers, 5-aminolevulinic acid and its derivatives, oxygen and singlet oxygen, PDT effects on cell organelles, mutagenic potential, the basis for tumour selectivity, cell cooperativity, photochemical internalization, light penetration into tissue and the significance of oxygen depletion, photobleaching of photosensitizers, optimal light sources, effects on the immune system, and, finally, future trends.

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