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Neurochem Int. 2008 Mar-Apr;52(4-5):621-33. Epub 2007 Oct 5.

Calcium dysregulation in Alzheimer's disease.

Author information

1
International Institute of Molecular and Cell Biology, 4 Ks. Trojdena Street, 02-109 Warsaw, Poland.

Abstract

Alzheimer disease (AD) is the most common form of adult dementia. Its pathological hallmarks are synaptic degeneration, deposition of amyloid plaques and neurofibrillary tangles, leading to neuronal loss. A few hypotheses have been proposed to explain AD pathogenesis. The beta-amyloid (Abeta) and hyperphosphorylated tau hypotheses suggest that these proteins are the main players in AD development. Another hypothesis proposes that the dysregulation of calcium homeostasis may be a key factor in accelerating other pathological changes. Although Abeta and tau have been extensively studied, recently published data provide a growing body of evidence supporting the critical role of calcium signalling in AD. For example, presenilins, which are mutated in familial cases of AD, were demonstrated to form low conductance calcium channels in the ER and elevated cytosolic calcium concentration increases amyloid generation. Moreover, memantine, an antagonist of the NMDA-calcium channel receptor, has been found to have a beneficial effect for AD patients offering novel possibilities for a calcium signalling targeted therapy of AD. This review underscores the growing importance of calcium ions in AD development and focuses on the relevant aspects of calcium homeostasis.

PMID:
18035450
DOI:
10.1016/j.neuint.2007.10.002
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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