Send to

Choose Destination
See comment in PubMed Commons below
Toxicol Sci. 2008 Mar;102(1):33-41. Epub 2007 Nov 20.

Mechanisms of interaction of endocrine-disrupting chemicals with glutamate-evoked secretion of gonadotropin-releasing hormone.

Author information

Developmental Neuroendocrinology Unit, Centre for Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology, University of Liège, University Hospital, Belgium.


In previous studies, we detected a dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) derivative in the serum of children with sexual precocity after migration from developing countries. Recently, we reported that DDT stimulated pulsatile gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) secretion and sexual maturation in the female rat. The aim of this study was to delineate the mechanisms of interaction of endocrine-disrupting chemicals including DDT with GnRH secretion evoked by glutamate in vitro. Using hypothalamic explants obtained from 15-day-old female rats, estradiol (E2) and DDT caused a concentration-related increase in glutamate-evoked GnRH release while p,p'-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethene and methoxychlor had no effect. The effective DDT concentrations in vitro were consistent with the serum concentrations measured in vivo 5 days after exposure of immature rats to 10 mg/kg/day of o,p'-DDT. Bisphenol A induced some stimulatory effect, whereas no change was observed with 4-nonylphenol. The o,p'-DDT effects in vitro were prevented partially by a selective antagonist of the alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazole propionic acid (AMPA) subtype of glutamate receptors. A complete prevention of o,p'-DDT effects was caused by an estrogen receptor (ER) antagonist as well as an aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) antagonist and inhibitors of protein kinases A and C and mitogen-activated kinases. While an intermittent incubation with E2 caused no change in amplification of the glutamate-evoked GnRH release for 4 h, continuous incubation with E2 or o,p'-DDT caused an increase of this amplification after 3.5 h of incubation. In summary, DDT amplifies the glutamate-evoked GnRH secretion in vitro through rapid and slow effects involving ER, AHR, and AMPA receptor mediation.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free full text

Publication types, MeSH terms, Substances

Publication types

MeSH terms


PubMed Commons home

PubMed Commons

How to join PubMed Commons

    Supplemental Content

    Full text links

    Icon for Silverchair Information Systems Icon for ORBi (University of Liege)
    Loading ...
    Support Center