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J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry. 2007 Dec;46(12):1575-83.

Prevalence and psychiatric comorbidity of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder in an adolescent Finnish population.

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Semel Institute, University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90095, USA.



The purpose of the study was to estimate the prevalence of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and its clinical characteristics in the Northern Finland Birth Cohort 1986.


A general population Northern Finland Birth Cohort 1986 of 9,432 children followed prospectively from the early fetal period was surveyed at adolescence (ages 16-18) for ADHD behaviors. Among 6,622 respondents to the survey, a subset of 457 likely cases and controls were evaluated for ADHD and other psychiatric disorders. Chi-square and descriptive statistics were used to examine clinical characteristics of ADHD in the subset, and logistic regression was used to estimate prevalence by weighted extrapolation in the larger cohort.


The estimated prevalence of ADHD among adolescents in the Northern Finland Birth Cohort 1986 is 8.5% with a male/female ratio of 5.7:1. The distribution of ADHD subtypes among the ADHD adolescents is 28% Combined, 64% Inattentive, and 8% Hyperactive-Impulsive. A lifetime diagnosis of a broadly defined ADHD (probable or definite) had a prevalence of 18.2% with a male/female odds ratio (OR) of 3.2. This lifetime diagnosis of ADHD is significantly associated with anxiety (OR 2.4), mood (OR 2.9), and disruptive behavioral disorders (OR 17.3) in the cohort.


ADHD is a common neurobehavioral disorder among Northern Finnish adolescents and significantly associated with psychiatric comorbidity in adolescence.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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