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Poult Sci. 2007 Dec;86(12):2666-70.

Marination pressure and phosphate effects on broiler breast fillet yield, tenderness, and color.

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USDA, Agricultural Research Service, Richard B. Russell Research Center, 950 College Station Road, Athens, GA 30605, USA.


In the United States a large percentage of raw poultry meat is marinated prior to cooking. Many products are marinated by vacuum tumbling meat with a mixture of water, salt, and phosphates to increase cook yield and perceived tenderness. This study was designed to determine the effect of 3 pressure treatments (ambient, vacuum, or positive) and phosphate on yield, tenderness, and color on broiler breast meat. In each of 3 replicate trials, 60 broiler breast fillets were randomly assigned to a tumble marination treatment of 1) ambient tumble pressure (101 kPa); 2) vacuum tumble pressure (50 kPa); or 3) positive tumble pressure (204 kPa). Each pressure treatment was conducted with and without phosphate in the marination solution. Marination tumblers were operated at 15 rpm for 20 min at a temperature of 3 degrees C. Broiler breast fillets were weighed (raw, immediately after marination, 1 h postmarination, and after cooking), sheared after cooking with a Warner-Bratzler device, and evaluated for color (CIE L, a, and b) before marination and after cooking. Pressure and phosphate treatment combinations did not significantly (P < 0.05) affect marinated or drip weights, Warner-Bratzler shear values, cooked b, or percent drip loss. There was no effect of pressure treatment except for marinade uptake, where ambient tumble uptake was 12.7%, which was significantly higher than positive tumble (11.4%); vacuum tumble uptake (12.0%) was not different from either. Phosphate significantly increased cook weight (from 94.9 to 106.1 g) and cook yield (from 76.6 to 86.1%); L and a values were slightly but significantly decreased. Type of pressure during tumble marination had no effect except on marinade uptake, but the effect disappeared with 1 h holding time and cooking. Phosphate improved cook weight and yield. These data show that vacuum pressure during tumbling is not necessary, but phosphate is important to cook yields.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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