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World J Gastroenterol. 2007 Dec 7;13(45):6009-15.

Risk factors for gastroesophageal reflux disease, reflux esophagitis and non-erosive reflux disease among Chinese patients undergoing upper gastrointestinal endoscopic examination.

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Department of Gastroenterology, First Affiliated Hospital, College of Medicine, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310003, Zhejiang Province, China.



To analyze the spectrum and risk factors of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) based on presenting symptoms and endoscopic findings.


A cross-sectional survey in a cluster random sample was conducted from November 2004 to June 2005 using a validated Chinese version Reflux Disease Questionnaire (RDQ) and other items recording the demographic characteristics and potential risk factors for GERD. Subjects were defined as having GERD symptoms according to the RDQ score (> 12). All subjects were endoscopied and the definition and severity of erosive esophagitis were evaluated by Los Angeles classification. The statistical analysis was performed with SPSS13.0 programs.


Of 2,231 recruited participants, 701 (31.40%) patients were diagnosed as having GERD while 464 (20.80%) patients had objective findings of reflux esophagitis (RE). Of those 464 patients, only 291 (13.00%) were reported as subjects with GERD symptoms. A total of 528 (23.70%) patients were found to have GERD symptoms, including 19.50% patients with grade A or B reflux esophagitis, 0.90% with grade C and 0.40% with grade D. On multivariate analysis, old age, male, moderate working burden, divorced/widowed and strong tea drinking remained as significant independent risk factors for erosive esophagitis. Meanwhile, routine usage of greasy food and constipation were considered as significant independent risk factors for non-erosive reflux disease (NERD).


GERD is one of the common GI diseases with a high occurrence rate in China and its main associated factors include sex, anthropometrical variables and sociopsychological characteristics.

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