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Nat Protoc. 2007;2(11):2728-33.

Version 1.2 of the Crystallography and NMR system.

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The Howard Hughes Medical Institute and Department of Molecular and Cellular Physiology, Stanford University, California 94305, USA.


Version 1.2 of the software system, termed Crystallography and NMR system (CNS), for crystallographic and NMR structure determination has been released. Since its first release, the goals of CNS have been (i) to create a flexible computational framework for exploration of new approaches to structure determination, (ii) to provide tools for structure solution of difficult or large structures, (iii) to develop models for analyzing structural and dynamical properties of macromolecules and (iv) to integrate all sources of information into all stages of the structure determination process. Version 1.2 includes an improved model for the treatment of disordered solvent for crystallographic refinement that employs a combined grid search and least-squares optimization of the bulk solvent model parameters. The method is more robust than previous implementations, especially at lower resolution, generally resulting in lower R values. Other advances include the ability to apply thermal factor sharpening to electron density maps. Consistent with the modular design of CNS, these additions and changes were implemented in the high-level computing language of CNS.

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