Send to

Choose Destination
See comment in PubMed Commons below
J Helminthol. 2007 Dec;81(4):421-7. Epub 2007 Nov 16.

Responses of Heterodera glycines and Meloidogyne incognita to exogenously applied neuromodulators.

Author information

Nematology Laboratory, US Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service, Beltsville MD 20705, USA.


Biogenic amines regulate important behaviours in nematodes and are associated with pharyngeal activity in plant-parasitic nematodes. A robust behavioural assay based upon nematode body movements was developed to expand the study of these and other neuroregulators in plant-parasitic nematodes. Dopamine, octopamine and serotonin each had significant but differing effects on the behaviour of soybean cyst nematode Heterodera glycines and root-knot nematode Meloidogyne incognita juveniles. Body movement frequency was increased twofold in H. glycines by 5 mM dopamine (P = 0.0001), but decreased by 50 mM dopamine in H. glycines (88%) and M. incognita (53%) (P < 0.0001). Movement frequency in both species was increased by 50-70% (P < 0.0001) by 50 mM octopamine, and 5 mM octopamine increased M. incognita movement frequency more than twofold (P < 0.0001). Movement frequency in each species was reduced by more than 90% by 5 mM serotonin (P < 0.0001). While amplitude of body movement in H. glycines was unaffected by any amine, it was significantly reduced in M. incognita by all amines (P < 0.0006). Stylet pulsing frequencies in either species were unaffected by dopamine or octopamine, but 5 mM serotonin stimulated pulsing in H. glycines by nearly 13-fold (P < 0.0001) and in M. incognita by more than 14-fold (P < 0.0001). The invertebrate neuropeptide FLRFamide (N-Phe-Leu-Arg-Phe) increased M. incognita body movement frequency 45% (P = 0.02) at 1 mM but did not affect stylet activity. Finally, H. glycines egg hatch was completely suppressed by 50 mM serotonin, and partially suppressed by 50 mM dopamine (75%; P < 0.0001) and 50 mM octopamine (55%; P < 0.0001).

[Indexed for MEDLINE]
PubMed Commons home

PubMed Commons

How to join PubMed Commons

    Supplemental Content

    Full text links

    Icon for Cambridge University Press
    Loading ...
    Support Center