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Pediatr Nephrol. 2008 Feb;23(2):297-305. Epub 2007 Nov 15.

Diet does not explain the high prevalence of dyslipidaemia in paediatric renal transplant recipients.

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Paediatric Research Centre, University of Tampere, Tampere, 33014, Finland.


Dyslipidaemia exists frequently after renal transplantation (RTx) and promotes atherosclerosis. In this study, we examined the association between daily intake of nutrients and serum lipids after paediatric RTx. We studied 45 children with acceptably functioning kidney grafts and adequately completed food records at a median age of 10.6 years (range 4.3-17.2 years), a median 5.2 years (range 1.0-11.0) after RTx, and 178 healthy controls at a median age of 9.0 years (range 3.2-18.7 years). Serum total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride, and apolipoprotein B concentrations were higher in the RTx patients than in the controls (P < 0.001), despite similar dietary intakes of saturated and polyunsaturated fats, and cholesterol. Both the RTx patients and controls ingested a low amount of polyunsaturated fats [mean (SD) percent of total calories (E%) 4.8 (1.3) and 4.6 (1.5), respectively] and an excessive amount of saturated fats [mean (SD) E% 14.4 (2.4) and 14.1 (2.8), respectively]. In multiple regression analyses, dietary fibre was negatively associated with serum TC concentration. The standard deviation score for body mass index was negatively associated with serum concentration of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) and low-density lipoprotein diameter, and positively with serum triglyceride concentration. In addition, dietary total fat intake was positively associated with serum HDL-C. In conclusion, the higher prevalence of dyslipidaemia in our paediatric RTx patients than in the controls was not explained by the diet. However, the type of fat consumed implicates the counselling for a healthier dietary lifestyle, with an increase in the ingestion of polyunsaturated fats and a decrease in that of saturated fats.

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