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Brain Res. 1991 Oct 18;562(1):79-84.

Genioglossus EMG activity during rhythmic jaw movements in the anesthetized guinea pig.

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Department of Oral Biology, School of Dentistry, University of California, Los Angeles 90024-166818.


The electromyograph (EMG) activity of the left anterior digastric and the genioglossus muscles was studied in ketamine-anesthetized guinea pigs under 3 separate jaw movement paradigms. The first paradigm has been previously named spontaneous rhythmic jaw movements. These jaw movements occur 1-2 h after the onset of ketamine anesthesia. After spontaneous rhythmic jaw movements began, a single dose of apomorphine caused a new, second jaw movement paradigm to occur, apomorphine-induced rhythmic jaw movements. The final paradigm, cortically-evoked rhythmic jaw movements, was elicited by electrical stimulation of the masticatory area of the cerebral cortex. Genioglossus EMG activity was complex and highly variable in spontaneous rhythmic jaw movements; however, apomorphine-induced jaw movements were characterized by simultaneously occurring rhythmic EMG bursts of approximately 230 ms duration in both the digastric and genioglossus muscles. In 4 of 5 animals, genioglossus muscle activity onset preceded digastric muscle activity onset by approximately 20 ms. These results support the hypothesis that apomorphine-induced rhythmic jaw movements are an analog of lapping in the awake animal. In cortically-evoked rhythmic jaw movements, both digastric and genioglossus EMG activity were time-locked to the cortical electrical stimulation, with an onset latency of approximately 11 ms for the digastric EMG activity and of 16 ms for the genioglossus EMG activity. These results support the hypothesis that both trigeminal and hypoglossal motoneuron pools are closely coupled in certain coordinative movement patterns.

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