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Arch Intern Med. 2007 Nov 12;167(20):2207-12.

Short-course nitrofurantoin for the treatment of acute uncomplicated cystitis in women.

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Department of Medicine, Yale University and VA Connecticut Healthcare System, 950 Campbell Avenue, West Haven, CT 06516, USA.



There is a paucity of data on the efficacy of nitrofurantoin for the treatment of acute uncomplicated cystitis in regimens shorter than 7 days. Evidence-based use of this drug is increasingly important as trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole resistance among uropathogens increases.


To assess the efficacy of nitrofurantoin vs trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, 338 women aged 18 to 45 years with acute uncomplicated cystitis were randomized to open-label treatment with either trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, 1 double-strength tablet twice daily for 3 days, or nitrofurantoin, 100 mg twice daily for 5 days. Clinical cure 30 days after therapy was the main outcome measure. Secondary outcomes included clinical and microbiological cure rates 5 to 9 days after therapy and, for trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole-treated women, clinical cure stratified by the trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole susceptibility of the uropathogen.


Clinical cure was achieved in 79% of the trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole group and in 84% of the nitrofurantoin group, for a difference of -5% (95% confidence interval, -13% to 4%). Clinical and microbiological cure rates at the first follow-up visit were also equivalent between the 2 groups. In the trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole arm, 7 of 17 women (41%) with a trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole-nonsusceptible isolate had a clinical cure compared with 84% of women with a trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole-susceptible isolate (P < .001).


A 5-day course of nitrofurantoin is equivalent clinically and microbiologically to a 3-day course of trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole and should be considered an effective fluoroquinolone-sparing alternative for the treatment of acute cystitis in women.


[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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