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Arch Neurol. 2007 Nov;64(11):1629-34.

Sanfilippo syndrome type D: natural history and identification of 3 novel mutations in the GNS Gene.

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Department of Pediatric Neurology, UZ Brussel, Laarbeeklaan 101, 1090 Brussels, Belgium.



Mucopolysaccharidosis type IIID (MPS-IIID), or Sanfilippo syndrome type D, is a rare autosomal recessive lysosomal storage disorder caused by mutations in the N-acetylglucosamine-6-sulfatase (GNS) gene, leading to impaired degradation of heparan sulfate.


To report the natural history of MPS-IIID in 2 siblings described by Kaplan and Wolfe in 1987 and to study the phenotype in 2 other unrelated families with MPS-IIID. Design, Setting, and Patients Case series of 4 patients with MPS-IIID: 2 siblings followed up at the Montreal Neurological Hospital and Institute, 1 patient followed up at the UZ Brussel, and 1 patient recruited through the prenatal counseling program at the UZ Brussel.


Clinical and molecular data collected from 3 families with enzyme-based diagnosis of MPS-IIID.


The course of the disease was characteristic of MPS-IIID in all patients, although survival may be longer than was previously reported. In family 1, both siblings were homozygous for a novel nonsense mutation in the GNS gene (c.1168C>T). In family 2, the proband carried a heterozygous mutation occurring in a splice recognition site in the intron 7 boundary (c.876-2A>G). The second mutation in this patient remains to be identified. In family 3, the proband was homozygous for a novel frameshift mutation in GNS due to the insertion of 5 nucleotides (c.1138_1139insGTCCT).


Major issues in the care of patients with MPS-IIID include behavioral problems, sleep problems, recurrent infections, dysphagia, and pain from orthopedic complications. To date, all mutations in GNS predict protein truncation, and there is no obvious genotype-phenotype correlation.

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