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FEBS Lett. 2007 Dec 11;581(29):5555-60. Epub 2007 Nov 13.

Role of singlet oxygen in chloroplast to nucleus retrograde signaling in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii.

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Department of Environmental Toxicology, Eawag, Swiss Federal Institute of Aquatic Science and Technology, Ueberlandstrasse 133, 8600, D├╝bendorf, Switzerland.


High light illumination of photosynthetic organisms stimulates the production of singlet oxygen by photosystem II and causes photooxidative stress. In Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, singlet oxygen also induces the expression of the nuclear-encoded glutathione peroxidase homologous gene GPXH. We provide evidence that singlet oxygen stimulates GPXH expression by activating a signaling mechanism outside the thylakoid membrane. Singlet oxygen from photosystem II could be detected with specific probes in the aqueous phase of isolated thylakoid suspensions and the cytoplasm of high light stressed cells. This indicates that singlet oxygen can stimulate a response farther from its production site than generally believed.

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