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Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg. 2008 Feb;102(2):130-6. Epub 2007 Nov 9.

Malaria and hookworm infections in relation to haemoglobin and serum ferritin levels in pregnancy in Masindi district, western Uganda.

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Vector Control Division, Ministry of Health, P.O. Box 1661, Kampala.


This study examined the predictors of haemoglobin (Hb) concentration and serum ferritin (SF) levels in pregnant women in an area of stable malaria transmission and high prevalence of intestinal helminth infections. In total, 834 women attending antenatal care for the first time were examined. Blood slides for malaria parasites were prepared for 802, of which 154 were primigravidae (PG) and 648 were multigravidae (MG). Malaria parasitaemia rate was 42.6% (66) in PG and 33.3% (216) in MG (P=0.04). The geometric mean parasite density was 1695.8 (95% CI 1005.0-2386.5) in PG and 922.7 (95% CI 626.7-1382.6) in MG (P=0.02). Anaemia (Hb<100g/l) was found in 18.0% (94) of aparasitaemic women compared to 28.5% (80) among parasitaemic women (P<0.001). The prevalence of anaemia was 15.1% (42) in women without hookworm infection compared to 23.3% (129) among infected women (P=0.006). Malaria parasitaemia, hookworm infection, C-reactive protein, gravidity and gestational age were associated with Hb status. Malaria parasitaemia, Ascaris lumbricodes and Trichuris trichiura infections and age were associated with SF. Malaria, hookworm infections and iron deficiency were associated with anaemia in the study population.

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