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Am J Clin Nutr. 2007 Nov;86(5):1354-63.

Effects of glucose-to-fructose ratios in solutions on subjective satiety, food intake, and satiety hormones in young men.

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Department of Nutritional Sciences, Faculty of Medicine, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, Canada.



The greater prevalence of obesity and the metabolic syndrome in the past 35 y has been attributed to the replacement of sucrose in the food supply with high-fructose corn syrup (HFCS).


Two experiments were conducted to determine the effect of solutions containing sucrose, HFCS, or various ratios of glucose to fructose (G:F) on food intake (FI), average appetite (AA), blood glucose (BG), plasma insulin, ghrelin, and uric acid (UA) in men.


Sugar solutions (300 kcal/300 mL) were (in %) G20:F80, HFCS 55 (G45:F55), sucrose, and G80:F20 (experiment 1, n = 12) and G20:F80, G35:F65, G50:F50, sucrose, and G80:F20 (experiment 2, n = 19). The controls were a sweet energy-free control (experiment 1) and water (both experiments). Solutions were provided in a repeated-measures design. AA, BG, and FI were measured in all subjects. Hormonal responses and UA were measured in 7 subjects in experiment 2. Measurements were taken from baseline to 75 min. FI was measured at 80 min.


Sucrose and HFCS (experiment 1) and sucrose and G50:F50 (experiment 2) had similar effects on all dependent measures. All sugar solutions similarly reduced the AA area under the curve (AUC). FI and plasma UA concentrations were significantly (P < 0.05) lower after high-glucose solutions than after low-glucose solutions. The lower FI was associated with a greater BG AUC (P < 0.05) and smaller AA and ghrelin AUCs (P < 0.01). Insulin and BG AUCs were positively associated (P < 0.001).


Sucrose, HFCS, and G50:F50 solutions do not differ significantly in their short-term effects on subjective and physiologic measures of satiety, UA, and FI at a subsequent meal.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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