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Clin J Am Soc Nephrol. 2008 Jan;3(1):273-80. Epub 2007 Nov 7.

Prevention of contrast-induced nephropathy with volume expansion.

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1
VA Pittsburgh Healthcare System, Mailstop 111F-U, 7E Room 120, Pittsburgh, PA 15240, USA. weisbordsd@upmc.edu

Abstract

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES:

Contrast-induced nephropathy is one of the few preventable forms of acute kidney injury. Several pharmacologic agents have been evaluated for the prevention of contrast-induced nephropathy, yet disappointingly, few have been shown conclusively to reduce the risk for this condition. A series of studies have demonstrated that volume expansion, particularly with intravenous fluids, is an effective intervention to reduce the risk for contrast-induced nephropathy.

DESIGN, SETTING, PARTICIPANTS, & MEASUREMENTS:

This article reviews the clinical trials that have assessed the role of volume expansion for the prevention of contrast-induced nephropathy.

RESULTS:

The administration of isotonic sodium chloride before and after radiocontrast injection seems to be more protective than equivalent volumes of hypotonic saline and, when feasible, should be administered over a sustained period of time. Recent clinical trials suggested that an abbreviated regimen of intravenous sodium bicarbonate may be superior to a comparable protocol of sodium chloride. Although a small number of studies have found that volume supplementation by mouth may be effective in preventing contrast-induced nephropathy, the routine use of enteral fluids or solute in lieu of intravenous fluids in high-risk patients cannot be recommended at this time. Rather, liberal oral fluid and solute intake should complement intravenous fluid administration to minimize risk.

CONCLUSIONS:

Future studies will be required to define clearly the optimal prophylactic intravenous fluid regimen for contrast-induced nephropathy and further delineate the independent role of oral volume expansion for the prevention of this condition.

PMID:
17989201
DOI:
10.2215/CJN.02580607
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
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