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J Org Chem. 2007 Nov 23;72(24):9163-9. Epub 2007 Nov 1.

Summation of nucleus independent chemical shifts as a measure of aromaticity.

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Department of Chemistry, Trinity University, San Antonio, TX 78212-7200, USA.


When the nucleus independent chemical shifts, NICS(1)zz, for a set of aromatic and antiaromatic hydrocarbons are summed, they show an excellent linear relationship with the magnetic susceptibility exaltation, Lambda, for neutral, cationic, and monoanionic species. Aromatic and antiaromatic dianions show a similar relationship but with a different slope. However, when both Lambda and the summation of NICS(1)zz are divided by the area of the ring squared, the vast majority of the aromatic and antiaromatic species fall on the same line, indicating that both NICS and Lambda are affected by the size of the ring. The species that deviate slightly from the line are a few of the anionic compounds, which may be a result of the difficulties of calculating magnetic properties of anions. This is the first report of the relationship of NICS to ring area. In addition, the excellent correlation between Lambda and the summation of NICS(1)zz demonstrates that summation of NICS(1)zz values for individual ring systems of polycyclic ring systems to give a measure of the aromaticity of the entire system is justified. By extension, the excellent correlation also serves to demonstrate that the NICS(1)zz values for individual ring systems are reliable measures of local aromaticity/antiaromaticity. Finally, the excellent correlation between experimental shifts and the 13C NMR shifts calculated with density functional theory, B3LYP/6-311+g(d,p), serves as an indirect validation of the accuracy of the NICS(1)zz calculated by the same method and basis set.


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