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Eur J Cardiothorac Surg. 2007 Dec;32(6):912-6. Epub 2007 Oct 25.

Selected ventriculoplasty for idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy with advanced congestive heart failure: midterm results and risk analysis.

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  • 1The Cardiovascular Institute, 7-3-10 Roppongi, Minato-Ku, Tokyo 106-0032, Japan.



To treat advanced heart failure due to idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy, surgical ventricular restoration with mitral reconstruction was conducted and evaluated.


In 95 patients (81 men, mean age: 54 years), New York Heart Association class III/IV was 44/51, and 33 patients (36%) were inotropic dependent preoperatively. Mitral regurgitation (>or=2+) was noted in all patients. All patients underwent left ventriculoplasty (septal anterior ventricular exclusion in 38, partial left ventriculectomy in 57) and mitral reconstruction (repair 53, replacement 42). Fifty-two patients (55%) had concomitant tricuspid repair. Intra-aortic balloon pumping and left ventricular assist device was used in 24 patients and two patients, respectively.


Hospital mortality was 11.6% (11 of 95), with 6.6% (5 of 76) in elective and 31.6% (6 of 19) in emergency operations. The ejection fraction and cardiac index increased from 22.3+/-6.3% to 27.2+/-8.0% and from 2.3+/-0.5 ml/m2/min to 2.8+/-0.5 ml/m2/min, respectively (p<0.001). The endodiastolic volume index, endosystolic volume index and diastolic dimension decreased from 232.9+/-56.1 ml/m2 to 160.0+/-49.8 ml/m2, from 178.9+/-46.7 ml/m2 to 113.8+/-44.7 ml/m2 and from 82.0+/-9.0 mm to 68.9+/-11.6 mm, respectively (p<0.001). Late death occurred in 27 patients with 22 cardiac deaths. The mean NYHA class was 1.7 among the survivors. One-, 3- and 5-year survival rates were 72.8%, 61.4% and 50.5%, respectively. In the 62 patients who were non-inotropic dependent preoperatively, 1-, 3-, and 5-year survival rates (81.8%, 73.7% and 62.9%) were significantly better than the inotropic-dependent group (55.3%, 37.3% and 28.0%). Patients with mitral annuloplasty showed a significantly higher 5-year survival rate than patients with mitral valve replacement (59.6% vs 43.6%) in univariate analysis. By application of the exclusion site selection method, the two different ventriculoplasty procedures did not show significant difference in survival rates. Multivariate analysis showed that preoperative inotropes and old age were significant predictors for postoperative mortality.


The selected ventriculoplasty in combination with mitral annuloplasty is a useful option for patients with an extremely dilated left ventricle in idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy. Surgery should be considered before inotropic dependency occurs when prior medical treatment has failed.

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