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Endocrinology. 2008 Feb;149(2):672-80. Epub 2007 Oct 25.

Mechanisms of glucose-induced expression of pancreatic-derived factor in pancreatic beta-cells.

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Institute for Nutritional Sciences, Shanghai Institutes for Biological Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai, PR China.


Pancreatic-derived factor (PANDER) is a cytokine-like peptide highly expressed in pancreatic beta-cells. PANDER was reported to promote apoptosis of pancreatic beta-cells and secrete in response to glucose. Here we explored the effects of glucose on PANDER expression, and the underlying mechanisms in murine pancreatic beta-cell line MIN6 and primary islets. Our results showed that glucose up-regulated PANDER mRNA and protein levels in a time- and dose-dependent manner in MIN6 cells and pancreatic islets. In cells expressing cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB) dominant-negative construct, glucose failed to induce PANDER gene expression and promoter activation. Treatment of the cells with calcium chelator [EGTA, 1,2-bis(o-aminophenoxy)ethane-N,N,N',N'-tetraacetic acid tetra(acetoxymethyl)ester (BAPTA/AM)], the voltage-dependent Ca(2+) channel inhibitor (nifedipine), the protein kinase A (PKA) inhibitor (H89), the protein kinase C (PKC) inhibitor (Go6976), or the MAPK kinase 1/2 inhibitor (PD98059), all significantly inhibited glucose-induced PANDER gene expression and promoter activation. Further studies showed that glucose induced CREB phosphorylation through Ca(2+)-PKA-ERK1/2 and Ca(2+)-PKC pathways. Thus, the Ca(2+)-PKA-ERK1/2-CREB and Ca(2+)-PKC-CREB signaling pathways are involved in glucose-induced PANDER gene expression. Wortmannin (phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase inhibitor), ammonium pyrrolidinedithiocarbamate (nuclear factor-kappaB inhibitor and nonspecific antioxidant), and N-acetylcysteine (antioxidant) were also found to inhibit glucose-induced PANDER promoter activation and gene expression. Because there is no nuclear factor-kappaB binding site in the promoter region of PANDER gene, these results suggest that phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase and reactive oxygen species be involved in glucose-induced PANDER gene expression. In conclusion, glucose induces PANDER gene expression in pancreatic beta-cells through multiple signaling pathways. Because PANDER is expressed by pancreatic beta-cells and in response to glucose in a similar way to those of insulin, PANDER may be involved in glucose homeostasis.

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