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Cardiol Clin. 2007 Aug;25(3):399-414, vi.

Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy and other causes of sudden cardiac death in young competitive athletes, with considerations for preparticipation screening and criteria for disqualification.

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Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy Center, Minneapolis Heart Institute Foundation, Minneapolis, MN 55407, USA.


Cardiovascular disease is the most frequent cause of death in young athletes, and hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) is the single most common condition responsible for these tragedies. Detection of diseases such as HCM can be achieved in general athlete populations through preparticipation screening, and most effectively if testing with electrocardiography or echocardiography is incorporated into the process. Criteria for disqualification and eligibility, based on identified cardiovascular abnormalities, are available in consensus panel guidelines for both United States and European athletes. Removal from intense training and competition is recommended for athletes with HCM, some of whom may ultimately be judged to be at unacceptably high risk for sudden death and eligible for prophylactic defibrillator implantation.

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