Format

Send to

Choose Destination
See comment in PubMed Commons below
Horm Behav. 2008 Jan;53(1):124-30. Epub 2007 Sep 14.

Sex chromosome complement affects nociception in tests of acute and chronic exposure to morphine in mice.

Author information

  • 1Department of Physiological Science, and Laboratory of Neuroendocrinology of the Brain Research Institute, University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90095, USA.

Abstract

We tested the role of sex chromosome complement and gonadal hormones in sex differences in several different paradigms measuring nociception and opioid analgesia using "four core genotypes" C57BL/6J mice. The genotypes include XX and XY gonadal males, and XX and XY gonadal females. Adult mice were gonadectomized and tested 3-4 weeks later, so that differences between sexes (mice with testes vs. ovaries) were attributable mainly to organizational effects of gonadal hormones, whereas differences between XX and XY mice were attributable to their complement of sex chromosomes. In Experiment 1 (hotplate test of acute morphine analgesia), XX mice of both gonadal sexes had significantly shorter hotplate baseline latencies prior to morphine than XY mice. In Experiment 2 (test of development of tolerance to morphine), mice were injected twice daily with 10 mg/kg morphine or saline for 6 days. Saline or the competitive NMDA antagonist CPP (3-(2-carboxypiperazin-4yl) propyl-1-phosphonic acid) (10 mg/kg) was co-injected. On day 7, mice were tested for hotplate latencies before and after administration of a challenge dose of morphine (10 mg/kg). XX mice showed shorter hotplate latencies than XY mice at baseline, and the XX-XY difference was greater following morphine. In Experiment 3, mice were injected with morphine (10 mg/kg) or saline, 15 min before intraplantar injection of formalin (5%/25 microl). XX mice licked their hindpaw more than XY mice within 5 min of formalin injection. The results indicate that X- or Y-linked genes have direct effects, not mediated by gonadal secretions, on sex differences in two different types of acute nociception.

PMID:
17956759
PMCID:
PMC2713052
DOI:
10.1016/j.yhbeh.2007.09.003
[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article
PubMed Commons home

PubMed Commons

0 comments
How to join PubMed Commons

    Supplemental Content

    Full text links

    Icon for Elsevier Science Icon for PubMed Central
    Loading ...
    Support Center