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J Chem Inf Model. 2007 Nov-Dec;47(6):2429-38. Epub 2007 Oct 23.

Significance analysis and multiple pharmacophore models for differentiating P-glycoprotein substrates.

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Amgen Inc., 1120 Veterans Boulevard, South San Francisco, CA 94080, USA.


P-glycoprotein (Pgp) mediated drug efflux affects the absorption, distribution, and clearance of a broad structural variety of drugs. Early assessment of the potential of compounds to interact with Pgp can aid in the selection and optimization of drug candidates. To differentiate nonsubstrates from substrates of Pgp, a robust predictive pharmacophore model was targeted in a supervised analysis of three-dimensional (3D) pharmacophores from 163 published compounds. A comprehensive set of pharmacophores has been generated from conformers of whole molecules of both substrates and nonsubstrates of P-glycoprotein. Four-point 3D pharmacophores were employed to increase the amount of shape information and resolution, including the ability to distinguish chirality. A novel algorithm of the pharmacophore-specific t-statistic was applied to the actual structure-activity data and 400 sets of artificial data (sampled by decorrelating the structure and Pgp efflux activity). The optimal size of the significant pharmacophore set was determined through this analysis. A simple classification tree using nine distinct pharmacophores was constructed to distinguish nonsubstrates from substrates of Pgp. An overall accuracy of 87.7% was achieved for the training set and 87.6% for the external independent test set. Furthermore, each of nine pharmacophores can be independently utilized as an accurate marker for potential Pgp substrates.

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