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East Mediterr Health J. 2007 Jul-Aug;13(4):819-28.

Environmental risk factors for refractive error among Egyptian schoolchildren.

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Department of Environmental and Occupational Medicine, National Research Centre, Cairo, Egypt.


This study evaluated the preventable environmental risk factors of refractive error (RE) among 1292 Egyptian schoolchildren aged 7-15 years, chosen from 12 schools using multistage random sampling. A questionnaire was completed, covering personal, medical, social and environmental data. Statistical analysis revealed that living in an area with many sources of environmental pollution, age, sex, family history of RE, socioeconomic status, ocular problems, school level and amount of near-work (hours/day) were significantly associated with RE. Logistic regression, after adjustment for sex, found that school level, near-work, socioeconomic status and family history were associated with RE.

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