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J Neurochem. 2008 Jan;104(2):435-45. Epub 2007 Oct 22.

Effect of glutamate intake during gestation on adenosine A(1) receptor/adenylyl cyclase pathway in both maternal and fetal rat brain.

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Departamento de Química Inorgánica, Orgánica y Bioquímica, Facultad de Químicas, Centro Regional de Investigaciones Biomédicas, Universidad de Castilla-La Mancha, Ciudad Real, Spain.


Pregnant Wistar rats were orally treated with 1 g/L l-glutamate during the entire gestational period and the status of adenosine A(1) receptor (A(1)R)/adenylyl cyclase transduction pathway from maternal and fetal brain was analyzed. Glutamate consumption, estimated from the loss of water from the drinking bottles, was 110 +/- 4.6 mg/kg/day. In mother brains glutamate intake did not significantly alter the B(max) value, although the K(d) value was significantly decreased. However in fetus brain, a significant decrease in B(max) was observed, without an alteration of K(d) value. Similar results were observed by western blot assays using specific A(1)R antibody, suggesting a down-regulation of A(1)R in fetal brain. Concerning alpha subunits of inhibitory G proteins (Gi), alphaGi(3) protein was slightly but significantly decreased in maternal brain without alterations of either Gi(1) or Gi(2). In contrast, alphaGi(1) and alphaGi(2) isoforms were increased in fetal brain. On the other hand, basal, forskolin, and forskolin plus GTPgammaS-stimulated adenylyl cyclase activity was significantly decreased in both maternal and fetal brain, and this was more prominent in fetal than in maternal brain. Finally, A(1)R functionality was significantly decreased in mother brain whereas no significant differences were detected in fetus brain. These results suggest that glutamate administered to pregnant rats modulates A(1)R signaling pathways in both tissues, showing an A(1)R down-regulation in fetal brain, and desensitization in maternal brain.

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