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Nat Neurosci. 2007 Nov;10(11):1398-400. Epub 2007 Oct 21.

Sex chromosome complement regulates habit formation.

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  • 1Division of Molecular Psychiatry, Yale University, Connecticut Mental Health Center Abraham Ribicoff Research Facilities, 34 Park Street, New Haven, Connecticut 06508, USA.

Abstract

Sex differences in brain function and behavior are regularly attributed to gonadal hormones. Some brain sexual dimorphisms, however, are direct actions of sex chromosome genes that are not mediated by gonadal hormones. We used mice in which sex chromosome complement (XX versus XY) and gonadal sex (ovaries versus testes) were independent, and found that XX mice showed faster food-reinforced instrumental habit formation than XY mice, regardless of gonadal phenotype.

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