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Toxicol Appl Pharmacol. 2007 Dec 15;225(3):267-77. Epub 2007 Sep 16.

Time course investigation of PPARalpha- and Kupffer cell-dependent effects of WY-14,643 in mouse liver using microarray gene expression.

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  • 1Department of Environmental Sciences and Engineering, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC 27599-7431, USA.


Administration of peroxisome proliferators to rodents causes proliferation of peroxisomes, induction of beta-oxidation enzymes, hepatocellular hypertrophy and hyperplasia, with chronic exposure ultimately leading to hepatocellular carcinomas. Many responses associated with peroxisome proliferators are nuclear receptor-mediated events involving peroxisome proliferators-activated receptor alpha (PPARalpha). A role for nuclear receptor-independent events has also been shown, with evidence of Kupffer cell-mediated free radical production, presumably through NAPDH oxidase, induction of redox-sensitive transcription factors involved in cytokine production and cytokine-mediated cell replication following acute treatment with peroxisome proliferators in rodents. Recent studies have demonstrated, by using p47(phox)-null mice which are deficient in NADPH oxidase, that this enzyme is not related to the phenotypic events caused by prolonged administration of peroxisome proliferators. In an effort to determine the timing of the transition from Kupffer cell-to PPARalpha-dependent modulation of peroxisome proliferator effects, gene expression was assessed in liver from Pparalpha-null, p47(phox)-null and corresponding wild-type mice following treatment with 4-chloro-6-(2,3-xylidino)-pyrimidynylthioacetic acid (WY-14,643) for 8 h, 24 h, 72 h, 1 week or 4 weeks. WY-14,643-induced gene expression in p47(phox)-null mouse liver differed substantially from wild-type mice at acute doses and striking differences in baseline expression of immune related genes were evident. Pathway mapping of genes that respond to WY-14,643 in a time- and dose-dependent manner demonstrates suppression of immune response, cell death and signal transduction and promotion of lipid metabolism, cell cycle and DNA repair. Furthermore, these pathways were largely dependent on PPARalpha, not NADPH oxidase demonstrating a temporal shift in response to peroxisome proliferators. Overall, this study shows that NADPH oxidase-dependent events, while detectable following acute treatment, are transient. To the contrary, a strong PPARalpha-specific gene signature was evident in mice that were continually exposed to WY-14,643.

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