Send to

Choose Destination
Alcohol Clin Exp Res. 2007 Dec;31(12):2059-64. Epub 2007 Oct 19.

Concurrent dietary administration of D-SAL and ethanol diminishes ethanol's teratogenesis.

Author information

Bowles Center for Alcohol Studies, Department of Cell and Developmental Biology, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, North Carolina 27599, USA.



SAL (SALLRSIPA) is a peptide fragment of activity-dependent neurotrophic factor. Both L- and D-SAL diminish ethanol's pathogenesis, however, the D-peptide is protease resistant, and can therefore be effectively administered in a diet. The present study tested the hypothesis that D-SAL provided in a liquid diet containing ethanol will prevent ethanol-induced teratogenicity in mice.


Following an ethanol acclimation period, female C57Bl/6J mice were withdrawn from the ethanol, bred, and then returned during gestational days (GD) 7 and 8 to a control liquid diet or one containing 4.8% ethanol alone or in combination with 5.6 microg/ml D-SAL. At these doses, the mice received approximately 75 microg of D-SAL on each day and achieved peak blood-alcohol concentrations on GD 8 that ranged from 148-162 mg/dl. On GD 14, the fetuses were examined for the presence of ocular abnormalities including microphthalmia and irregularly shaped pupils, teratogenic effects known to result from this ethanol exposure paradigm.


Dietary D-SAL reduced the incidence of ocular defects in ethanol-exposed fetuses from 29 to 10% in the right eyes and from 21 to 7.5% in the left eyes; levels similar to those observed in pair-fed controls. In addition to decreasing their incidence, D-SAL also reduced the severity of the ocular defects.


These results demonstrate that oral D-SAL can prevent ethanol-induced ocular defects. Because ocular defects are commonly associated with CNS damage, oral D-SAL may also prove valuable in preventing ethanol-induced brain defects.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

Supplemental Content

Full text links

Icon for Wiley
Loading ...
Support Center