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A review of materials, fabrication methods, and strategies used to enhance bone regeneration in engineered bone tissues.

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Department of Biological and Irrigation Engineering, Utah State University, Logan, Utah, USA.


Over the last decade, bone engineered tissues have been developed as alternatives to autografts and allografts to repair and reconstruct bone defects. This article provides a review of the current technologies in bone tissue engineering. Factors used for fabrication of three-dimensional bone scaffolds such as materials, cells, and biomolecular signals, as well as required properties for ideal bone scaffolds, are reviewed. In addition, current fabrication techniques including rapid prototyping are elaborated upon. Finally, this review article further discusses some effective strategies to enhance cell ingrowth in bone engineered tissues; for example, nanotopography, biomimetic materials, embedded growth factors, mineralization, and bioreactors. In doing so, it suggests that there is a possibility to develop bone substitutes that can repair bone defects and promote new bone formation for orthopedic applications.

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