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Dev Biol. 2007 Nov 15;311(2):554-65. Epub 2007 Sep 16.

XGRIP2.1 is encoded by a vegetally localizing, maternal mRNA and functions in germ cell development and anteroposterior PGC positioning in Xenopus laevis.

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Department of Developmental Biochemistry, GZMB, University of Goettingen, Justus-von-Liebig-Weg 11, 37077 Goettingen, Germany.


The Xenopus germ line is derived from a specialized region in the vegetal hemisphere of the oocyte, the germ plasm. Several maternal transcripts harboured in this region have been connected to the process of germ cell specification. We identified and functionally characterized a novel vegetally localizing mRNA encoding a glutamate receptor interacting protein (GRIP) family member in Xenopus, termed XGRIP2.1. XGRIP2.1 is specifically associated with the germ plasm and PGCs throughout Xenopus embryogenesis. Morpholino-mediated knockdown and overexpression of a putative dominant negative XGRIP2.1 protein fragment reduced average PGC numbers and interfered with the proper anteroposterior positioning of PGCs at tailbud stages. Thus, our results suggest that XGRIP2.1 is required for normal PGC development and migration in Xenopus.

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