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J Plant Physiol. 2008 Jun 16;165(9):967-75. Epub 2007 Oct 23.

Exogenous auxin-induced NO synthesis is nitrate reductase-associated in Arabidopsis thaliana root primordia.

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Department of Plant Biology, Faculty of Science and Informatics, University of Szeged, POB 654, 6701 Szeged, Hungary.


Nitric oxide (NO) functions in various physiological and developmental processes in plants. However, the source of this signaling molecule in the diversity of plant responses is not well understood. It is known that NO mediates auxin-induced adventitious and lateral root (LR) formation. In this paper, we provide genetic and pharmacological evidence that the production of NO is associated with the nitrate reductase (NR) enzyme during indole-3-butyric acid (IBA)-induced lateral root development in Arabidopsis thaliana L. NO production was detected using 4,5-diaminofluorescein diacetate (DAF-2DA) in the NR-deficient nia1, nia2 and Atnoa1 (former Atnos1) mutants of A. thaliana. An inhibitor for nitric oxide synthase (NOS) N(G)-monomethyl-l-arginine (l-NMMA) was applied. Our data clearly show that IBA increased LR frequency in the wild-type plant and the LR initials emitted intensive NO-dependent fluorescence of the triazol product of NO and DAF-2DA. Increased levels of NO were restricted only to the LR initials in contrast to primary root (PR) sections, where NO remained at the control level. The mutants had different NO levels in their control state (i.e. without IBA treatment): nia1, nia2 showed lower NO fluorescence than Atnoa1 or the wild-type plant. The role of NR in IBA-induced NO formation in the wild type was shown by the zero effects of the NOS inhibitors l-NMMA. Finally, it was clearly demonstrated that IBA was able to induce NO generation in both the wild-type and Atnoa1 plants, but failed to induce NO in the NR-deficient mutant. It is concluded that the IBA-induced NO production is nitrate reductase-associated during lateral root development in A. thaliana.

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