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Appl Environ Microbiol. 2007 Dec;73(23):7759-62. Epub 2007 Oct 12.

Anaerobic metabolism of 1-amino-2-naphthol-based azo dyes (Sudan dyes) by human intestinal microflora.

Author information

1
Division of Microbiology, National Center for Toxicological Research, U.S. FDA, 3900 NCTR Rd., Jefferson, AR 72079-9502, USA.

Abstract

The rates of metabolism of Sudan I and II and Para Red by human intestinal microflora were high compared to those of Sudan III and IV under anaerobic conditions. Metabolites of the dyes were identified as aniline, 2,4-dimethylaniline, o-toluidine, and 4-nitroaniline through high-performance liquid chromatography and liquid chromatography electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry analyses. These data indicate that human intestinal bacteria are able to reduce Sudan dyes to form potentially carcinogenic aromatic amines.

PMID:
17933925
PMCID:
PMC2168037
DOI:
10.1128/AEM.01410-07
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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