Send to

Choose Destination
Crit Rev Oncol Hematol. 2008 Mar;65(3):235-62. Epub 2007 Oct 10.

Prognostic factors and selection for clinical studies of patients with kidney cancer.

Author information

Department of Urology, David Geffen School of Medicine at University of California-Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA 90095, United States.


Over the past 2 decades, a greater understanding of the basic biology and genetics of kidney cancer has occurred. Surgical techniques have also evolved, and technological advances have made possible new methods of managing renal tumors. The most extensively used system to provide prognostic information for renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is currently the tumor, nodes, metastasis (TNM) staging system. Emerging data over the last few years has questioned whether further revisions are needed and if improvements can be made with the introduction of new, more accurate and predictive prognostic factors. The recent discovery of molecular tumor biomarkers are expected to revolutionize the staging of RCC and potentially lead to the development of new therapies based on molecular targeting. This review will examine the current staging modalities and prognostic factors associated with RCC as well as the selection of patients most likely to benefit from clinical trials.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

Supplemental Content

Full text links

Icon for Elsevier Science
Loading ...
Support Center