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Biol Bull. 2007 Oct;213(2):172-86.

Localization of glutamate-like immunoreactive neurons in the central and peripheral nervous system of the adult and developing pond snail, Lymnaea stagnalis.

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Division of Biological Sciences, Graduate School of Science, Hokkaido University, Sapporo 060-0810, Japan.


We investigated the distribution and projection patterns of central and peripheral glutamate-like immunoreactive (GLU-LIR) neurons in the adult and developing nervous system of Lymnaea. Altogether, 50-60 GLU-LIR neurons are present in the adult central nervous system. GLU-LIR labeling is shown in the interganglionic bundle system and at the varicosities in neuropil of the central ganglia. In the periphery, the foot, lip, and tentacle contain numerous GLU-LIR bipolar sensory neurons. In the juvenile Lymnaea, GLU-LIR elements at the periphery display a pattern of distribution similar to that seen in adults, whereas labeled neurons increase in number in the different ganglia of the central nervous system from juvenile stage P1 up to adulthood. During embryogenesis, GLU-LIR innervation can be detected first at the 50% stage of embryonic development (the E50% stage) in the neuropil of the cerebral and pedal ganglia, followed by the emergence of labeled pedal nerve roots at the E75% stage. Before hatching, at the E90% stage, a few GLU-LIR sensory cells can be found in the caudal foot region. Our findings indicate a wide range of occurrence and a broad role for glutamate in the gastropod nervous system; hence they provide a basis for future studies on glutamatergic events in networks underlying different behaviors.

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