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Urologe A. 2007 Nov;46(11):1514-8.

[30 Years of sentinel lymph node diagnostic in penile carcinoma: development of a diagnostic procedure and current results].

[Article in German]

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Klinik für Urologie und Kinderurologie, Universitätsklinikum Schleswig Holstein, Campus Kiel, Arnold-Heller-Strasse 7, 24105, Kiel, Germany.


Cabanas, working 30 years ago, was the first to use the term "sentinel lymph node" in urology. His definition of the sentinel lymph node was based on typical anatomical patterns and therefore could not do justice to any individual variability in lymphatic drainage. This meant that application of the technique yielded high false-negative rates, and because of this it was largely abandoned. Dynamic visualization of lymphatic drainage by blue dye in melanoma patients resulted in a renaissance of the sentinel node concept in penile cancer in the mid-1990s. With constant improvements and standardization of the technique it proved possible to reduce the incidence of false-negative results from the initial 22% to 4.8%. This technique requires that specialists in urology, pathology, and nuclear medicine collaborate closely, and high standards are also essential in quality control.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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