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Psychol Med. 2008 Jun;38(6):771-85. Epub 2007 Oct 9.

Meta-analyses of cognitive functioning in euthymic bipolar patients and their first-degree relatives.

Author information

1
Department of Psychiatry and Neuropsychology, South Limburg Mental Health Research and Teaching Network, EURON, Maastricht University, PO Box 616 (KAP2), 6200 MD Maastricht, The Netherlands. b.arts@np.unimaas.nl

Erratum in

  • Psychol Med. 2009 Mar;39(3):525.

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

Previous work suggests that impairments in executive function and verbal memory in particular may persist in euthymic bipolar patients and serve as an indicator of genetic risk (endophenotype).

METHOD:

A systematic review of the literature was undertaken. Effects sizes were extracted from selected papers and pooled using meta-analytical techniques.

RESULTS:

In bipolar patients, large effect sizes (d>0.8) were noted for executive functions (working memory, executive control, fluency) and verbal memory. Medium effect sizes (0.5<d<0.8) were reported for aspects of executive function (concept shifting, executive control), mental speed, visual memory, and sustained attention. Small effect sizes (d<0.5) were found for visuoperception. In first-degree relatives, effect sizes were small (d<0.5), but significantly different from healthy controls for executive function and verbal memory in particular.

CONCLUSIONS:

Executive function and verbal memory are candidate bipolar endophenotypes given large deficits in these domains in bipolar patients and small, but intermediate, cognitive impairments in first-degree relatives.

PMID:
17922938
DOI:
10.1017/S0033291707001675
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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