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J Infect Dis. 2007 Nov 1;196(9):1313-20. Epub 2007 Oct 5.

Cross-protection against H5N1 influenza virus infection is afforded by intranasal inoculation with seasonal trivalent inactivated influenza vaccine.

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Department of Pathology, National Institute of Infectious Diseases, Musashimurayama-Shi, Tokyo, Japan.



Avian H5N1 influenza A virus is an emerging pathogen with the potential to cause substantial human morbidity and mortality. We evaluated the ability of currently licensed seasonal influenza vaccine to confer cross-protection against highly pathogenic H5N1 influenza virus in mice.


BALB/c mice were inoculated 3 times, either intranasally or subcutaneously, with the trivalent inactivated influenza vaccine licensed in Japan for the 2005-2006 season. The vaccine included A/NewCaledonia/20/99 (H1N1), A/NewYork/55/2004 (H3N2), and B/Shanghai/361/2002 viral strains and was administered together with poly(I):poly(C(12)U) (Ampligen) as an adjuvant. At 14 days after the final inoculation, the inoculated mice were challenged with either the A/HongKong/483/97, the A/Vietnam/1194/04, or the A/Indonesia/6/05 strain of H5N1 influenza virus.


Compared with noninoculated mice, those inoculated intranasally manifested cross-reactivity of mucosal IgA and serum IgG with H5N1 virus, as well as both a reduced H5N1 virus titer in nasal-wash samples and increased survival, after challenge with H5N1 virus. Subcutaneous inoculation did not induce a cross-reactive IgA response and did not afford protection against H5N1 viral infection.


Intranasal inoculation with annual influenza vaccine plus the Toll-like receptor-3 agonist, poly(I):poly(C(12)U), may overcome the problem of a limited supply of H5N1 virus vaccine by providing cross-protective mucosal immunity against H5N1 viruses with pandemic potential.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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