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Neurotherapeutics. 2007 Oct;4(4):590-601.

Chemokines and chemokine receptors in neurological disease: raise, retain, or reduce?

Author information

1
Neuroinflammation Research Center, Department of Neurosciences, Lerner Research Institute, Cleveland Clinic Foundation, 9500 Euclid Avenue, Cleveland, OH 44195, USA.

Abstract

Chemokines and chemokine receptors comprise a large number of molecules implicated in a wide range of physiological and pathological functions. Numerous studies have demonstrated the roles of chemokines and chemokine receptors: 1) during development, by regulating hematopoiesis, cardiogenesis, and vascular and cerebellar development; 2) during tumor biology, by controlling cell proliferation, angiogenesis, and metastasis; and 3), especially during leukocyte migration, by acting on firm adhesion, locomotion, diapedesis, and chemotaxis. This review focuses on chemokine and chemokine receptor involvement in diverse neurological diseases and their therapeutic potentials. Because of its induction or upregulation during CNS pathologies, members of the chemokine system can be used as biological markers. CXCR4 and CXCL12, by the correlation between their expression and the glioblastoma tumor progression, could be a marker to grade this type of CNS tumor. CCR1, by virtue of specific expression in Abeta plaques, may be a marker for Alzheimer pathology. Downregulation of CCL2 in cerebrospinal fluid may be a candidate to characterize multiple sclerosis (MS), but needs additional investigation. Moreover, chemokines and chemokine receptors represent interesting therapeutic targets. Using chemokine receptor antagonists, several studies provided exciting findings for potential neurological disease treatment. Chemokine receptor antagonists reduce disease severity in animal models of MS. In glioblastoma, a CXCR4 antagonist (AMD3100) showed an inhibition of tumor growth. Inhibition of chemokine receptor signaling is not the only therapeutic strategy: for example, CXCR4-CXCL12 has anti-inflammatory properties and CX3CL1-CX3CR1 controls neurotoxicity. Thus, chemokine biology suggests several approaches for treating neurological disease.

PMID:
17920540
DOI:
10.1016/j.nurt.2007.07.004
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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