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Biol Psychiatry. 2008 Mar 1;63(5):498-504. Epub 2007 Oct 3.

Nonverbal delayed recognition in the relatives of schizophrenia patients with or without schizophrenia spectrum.

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Hospital General Universitario Gregorio Marañón, Departamento de Psiquiatría, Madrid, Spain.



There is increased interest in the study of cognitive deficits as possible endophenotypic markers for schizophrenia. The main goal of this study was to determine how familiality and schizophrenia spectrum personality symptomatology are related to performance of auditory and visuospatial delayed recognition memory tasks.


The study sample consisted of 162 subjects divided into five groups. The groups included 39 patients with a DSM-IV diagnosis of schizophrenia or schizophreniform disorder; first-degree relatives of schizophrenia patients, 22 with and 31 without schizophrenia spectrum personality traits; and healthy control subjects with no family history of psychosis, 22 with and 48 without schizophrenia spectrum traits. Auditory and visuospatial delayed recognition memory performance was assessed.


Significant differences were observed between patients and healthy control subjects in both auditory [F(1,79) = 7.358 p = .008] and visual [F(1,47) = 34.67, p < .001] delayed recognition tasks. When comparing the four non-patient groups, auditory and visuospatial discriminability decreased as a function of familiality of schizophrenia (p < .05). Deficits were more pronounced in relatives with schizophrenia spectrum traits [auditory d = .7114; visual d = 1.0199].


A biological relationship to schizophrenia increases the likelihood of impaired delayed recognition memory. Likewise, poorer performance is associated with schizophrenia spectrum phenotype only when combined with familiality.

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