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AAPS PharmSciTech. 2007 Sep 21;8(3):E77.

Mucoadhesive bilayer tablets of propranolol hydrochloride.

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A.M.P.C. College of Pharmaceutical Education and Research, Himatnagar-383001, Gujarat State, India.


The purpose of this research was to study mucoadhesive bilayer buccal tablets of propranolol hydrochloride using the bioadhesive polymers sodium alginate (Na-alginate) and Carbopol 934P (CP) along with ethyl cellulose as an impermeable backing layer. The tablets were evaluated for weight variation, thickness, hardness, friability, surface pH, mucoadhesive strength, swelling index, in vitro drug release, ex vivo drug permeation, ex vivo mucoadhesion, and in vivo pharmacodynamics in rabbits. Tablets containing Na-alginate and CP in the ratio of 5:1 (F2) had the maximum percentage of in vitro drug release without disintegration in 12 hours. The swelling index was proportional to Na-alginate content and inversely proportional to CP content. The surface pH of all tablets was found to be satisfactory (7.0 +/- 1.5), close to neutral pH; hence, buccal cavity irritation should not occur with these tablets. The mechanism of drug release was found to be non-Fickian diffusion and followed zero-order kinetics. The formulation F4 was optimized based on good bioadhesive strength (28.9 +/- 0.99 g) and sustained in vitro drug permeation (68.65% +/- 3.69% for 12 hours). The behavior of formulation F4 was examined in human saliva, and both the drug and the buccal tablet were found to be stable. The formulation F4 was applied to rabbit oral mucosa for in vivo studies. The formulation inhibited isoprenaline-induced tachycardia. The studies conducted in rabbits confirmed the sustained release as compared with intravenous administration.

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