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J Abnorm Child Psychol. 2008 Apr;36(3):373-83. Epub 2007 Oct 4.

Few preschool boys and girls with ADHD are well-adjusted during adolescence.

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Department of Psychology, University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA), 1285 Franz Hall, P.O. Box 951563, Los Angeles, CA 90095-1563, USA.


To estimate the prevalence of being well-adjusted in adolescence, boys and girls with (n = 96) and without (n = 126) attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) were assessed seven times in eight years starting when they were 4-6 years of age. Symptoms of ADHD, ODD/CD, and depression/anxiety in addition to social skills and social preference were gathered using multiple methods and informants. Being well-adjusted was defined by surpassing thresholds in at least four of the five domains. At the 7- and 8-year follow-up, when youth were 11-14 years old, probands were significantly less likely to be well-adjusted relative to age- and ethnicity-matched control children. Only a minority of children with ADHD was well-adjusted in adolescence when emotional, behavioral, and social domains were considered simultaneously. Even when their ADHD symptoms improved over time, most probands exhibited significant impairment 7-8 years after their initial assessment.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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