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Nat Rev Mol Cell Biol. 2007 Nov;8(11):917-29.

Vacuolar ATPases: rotary proton pumps in physiology and pathophysiology.

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Department of Physiology, Tufts University School of Medicine, 136 Harrison Ave., Boston, Massachusetts 02111, USA.


The acidity of intracellular compartments and the extracellular environment is crucial to various cellular processes, including membrane trafficking, protein degradation, bone resorption and sperm maturation. At the heart of regulating acidity are the vacuolar (V-)ATPases--large, multisubunit complexes that function as ATP-driven proton pumps. Their activity is controlled by regulating the assembly of the V-ATPase complex or by the dynamic regulation of V-ATPase expression on membrane surfaces. The V-ATPases have been implicated in a number of diseases and, coupled with their complex isoform composition, represent attractive and potentially highly specific drug targets.

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