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Minerva Ginecol. 2007 Oct;59(5):473-9.

[Association of antioxidants and natural immune activators in the treatment of astheno-teratospermia and abacterial leukocytosis].

[Article in Italian]

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Centro Sterilità di Coppia, Dipartimento di Ginecologia e Ostetricia, Azienda Ospedaliera Universitaria Senese, Siena, Italy.



Leukocytes are often present in human seminal plasma and more frequently in infertile men. Leukocytospermia is associated with sperm morphological and functional alterations. Immune cell activation leads to an increase of free radical production, without any antioxidant defence activation. Leukocyte presence during sperm maturation and migration through male genital tract and consequently exposure to reactive oxygen species led to sperm alteration: axonemal, acrosomal and nuclear structure damage, associated with necrosis. In order to evaluate the immune-modulating and antioxidative activity of beta-glucan, fermented papaya and lactoferrin associated with vitamins C and E, we analysed sperm characteristics of selected infertile male with astheno-teratospermia and abacterial leukocytosis.


We selected 20 patients referred to our Sterility Centre for semen analysis with leukocyte concentration higher than 1x106 cell/mL. Seminal quality evaluation was performed according to WHO guidelines (1999) using Papanicolau and eosin staining, before and after three months of treatment with beta-glucan, papaya, lactoferrin, vitamin C and E.


After therapy, seminal analysis showed a significant reduction of leukocyte concentration and an increase of sperm motility and normal sperm morphology.


Our results suggest that a combined immunomodulating and antioxidant treatment protect sperm cells during maturation and migration through the male genital tract, resulting in a functional rescue demonstrated by the improvement of semen quality.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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