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Mol Phylogenet Evol. 2008 Feb;46(2):547-59. Epub 2007 Jul 18.

Molecular systematics of the barklouse family Psocidae (Insecta: Psocodea: 'Psocoptera') and implications for morphological and behavioral evolution.

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  • 1Systematic Entomology, Graduate School of Agriculture, Hokkaido University, Sapporo 060-8589, Japan.


We evaluated the higher level classification within the family Psocidae (Insecta: Psocodea: 'Psocoptera') based on combined analyses of nuclear 18S, Histone 3, wingless and mitochondrial 12S, 16S and COI gene sequences. Various analyses (inclusion/exclusion of incomplete taxa and/or rapidly evolving genes, data partitioning, and analytical method selection) all provided similar results, which were generally concordant with relationships inferred using morphological observations. Based on the phylogenetic trees estimated for Psocidae, we propose a revised higher level classification of this family, although uncertainty still exists regarding some aspects of this classification. This classification includes a basal division into two subfamilies, 'Amphigerontiinae' (possibly paraphyletic) and Psocinae. The Amphigerontiinae is divided into the tribes Kaindipsocini (new tribe), Blastini, Amphigerontini, and Stylatopsocini. Psocinae is divided into the tribes 'Ptyctini' (probably paraphyletic), Psocini, Atrichadenotecnini (new tribe), Sigmatoneurini, Metylophorini, and Thyrsophorini (the latter includes the taxon previously recognized as Cerastipsocini). We examined the evolution of symmetric/asymmetric male genitalia over this tree and found this character to be quite homoplasious.

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