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Am J Med Genet C Semin Med Genet. 2007 Nov 15;145C(4):357-71.

Chromosome 2q37 deletion: clinical and molecular aspects.

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Cedars-Sinai Medical Center, Division of Medical Genetics, 8700 Beverly Blvd., SSB 387, Los Angeles, CA 90048, USA.


Terminal deletions of chromosome 2 with breakpoints at or within band 2q37, ranging from visible abnormalities to cryptic, subtelomeric deletions, have been recognized with increasing frequency among children with mild-moderate mental retardation, characteristic facial appearance, and behavioral manifestations which often place them on the autism spectrum. The stereotypic facial characteristics include prominent forehead, thin, highly arched eyebrows, depressed nasal bridge, full cheeks, deficient nasal alae and prominent columella, thin upper lip, and various minor anomalies of the pinnae. Abnormal nipples, including inverted nipples, have been reported in a number of cases. CNS, ocular, cardiac, gastrointestinal, renal, and other GU anomalies have been noted in nearly one-third of patients. Of note, coarctation or hypoplasia of the aorta has been described in several affected children. Wilms tumor, renal dysplasia, and tracheomalacia have been reported only with the most proximal breakpoint at band 2q37.1 while a range of GI anomalies, pyloric stenosis, and diaphragmatic defects have been reported with breakpoints throughout the region. A subset of patients with the most distal deletion present phenotypic features which mimic Albright hereditary osteodystrophy (AHO). In addition to the AHO-like phenotype, later onset findings include seizures and cystic kidneys. Timely diagnosis of this recognizable syndrome provides a basis for genetic counseling, appropriate surveillance, and intervention, and avoids unnecessary and expensive diagnostic testing.

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