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J Am Podiatr Med Assoc. 2007 Sep-Oct;97(5):371-6.

Anterior cruciate ligament injury in female and male athletes: the relationship between foot structure and injury.

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Department of Physical Therapy, School of Allied Health Sciences, East Carolina University, Greenville, NC 27858, USA.



It has been shown that anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injuries are more prevalent in female athletes than in male athletes. Soccer and basketball are considered high-risk sports for ACL injury in female athletes. Several studies have reported a relationship between ACL injury and measures of foot structure. This study was conducted to investigate the relationship between foot structure and ACL injury rates in female and male soccer and basketball players.


One hundred five soccer and basketball players (53 women and 52 men) were recruited and divided into an ACL-normal group (n=89) and an ACL-injured group (n=16). Two measures of foot structure (subtalar joint neutral position and navicular drop test values) were recorded for each subject. An independent t test and a paired t test were used to analyze differences in ACL status, foot structure, and sex. A chi2 analysis determined whether the prevalence of ACL injury was independent of sport.


No statistically significant differences were found in the foot structure measures between women and men. Female soccer and basketball players had an ACL injury rate seven times that of male players.


Values derived from subtalar joint neutral position measurement and the navicular drop test were not associated with ACL injury in collegiate female and male soccer and basketball players.

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