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Kidney Int. 2007 Dec;72(12):1535-42. Epub 2007 Sep 26.

Improved GFR estimation by combined creatinine and cystatin C measurements.

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Division of Nephrology and Institute of Nephrology, The First Hospital, Peking University, Xicheng District, Beijing, China.


Plasma creatinine may not reflect glomerular filtration rate (GFR) especially in the early stages of chronic kidney disease (CKD). Plasma cystatin C (cysC), however, has the potential to more accurately determine early GFR reduction. We sought to improve the creatinine-based GFR estimation by including cysC measurements. We derived a reference GFR from standard dual plasma sampling (99m)Tc-DTPA clearance in a training cohort of 376 randomly selected adult Chinese patients with CKD. We compared reference values to estimated GFR and applied multiple regression models to one equation based solely on cysC, and to another combining plasma creatinine (Pcr) and cysC measurements of the training cohort. The results were validated by testing an additional 191 patients. The difference, precision, and accuracy of the two estimates were compared with the modified Modification of Diet in Renal Disease (MDRD) equation for Chinese patients, and another estimate combining cysC and modified MDRD calculations. The estimated GFR combining Pcr and cysC measurements more accurately matched the reference GFR at all stages of CKD than the other equations, particularly in patients with near-normal kidney function.

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